Annotated Bibliography


Blog 2

Rick Poyner, 2007. Eye Magazine. Eye Magazine | Feature | Anatomy of a magazine. Available at: November 10, 2018].

This source was valuable to my research because it investigates surrealism and its impact on graphic design, and Rick Poyner uses good resources within his article such as the book A History of Graphic Design by Phillip Megg. He specifically comments how his thoughts are reflected by Phillip Megg on how surrealism has been trivialised ‘Unfortunately, the ideas and images of surrealism have been exploited and trivialized frequently in the mass media,’. It was important to my research to build an understanding of how art movements I was previously familiar with feed into and inform graphic design and illustration today. Giving me a structured understanding of how illustration has evolved over the years. Rick Poyner is himself a good source because is the founder of Eye magazine, a writer of vast experience on graphic design, typography and visual culture and was a professor at the Royal College of Arts. His knowledge and reflections carry weight.

Rick Poyner, A Dictionary of Surrealism and the Graphic Image. Design Observer. Available at: [Accessed December 10, 2018].

This source, a written essay by Rock Poyner was important to the development of my second blog because he breaks down the history of surrealism and how its movement influenced the expansion of concept art into graphic images and illustrations. Illustrations were not purely representational, a medical illustration or political for example.  He breaks down devices the surrealists used such as the uncanny, the marvellous, their use of letters in collage, the use of the eye as the window to the soul, their exploration of dream and the unconscious, death & automatism.  He puts a strong case forward that Surrealism has not been recognised for its influence. I agree with a lot of his points but do believe that Dada had an even greater influence on graphic design and surrealism itself.

Male, Alan. Illustration A Theoretical & Contextual Perspective. Second ed., Bloomsbury, 2017. page 68 – 73

The quotes taken from this source are brilliantly helpful to reflecting and informing how illustration moved from being purely representational to evolving its remit to conceptual  qualities and when that happened.  This section explains “This implies a way of depicting content by utilising a number of ideas and methods of communication, illustration, symbolism and expression. This type of visual stylisation started to evolve during the 1950’s in the United States when issues and themes, as publicised in magazines, were becoming more critical and complex. There seemed a need to present the viewer with much more enigmatic and ambitious images that invented deeper interpretation”. This was important for me to understand how illustration has developed from singular purpose to containing multiple possibilities of meaning. This book has been peer reviewed and has been very useful for my development in the initial two modules.

Blog 3

Noble, I., Bestley, R., & Journals, 1. (2006). Picture perfect: Fusions of illustration & design. RotoVision: Mies, Switzerland,Page 08:09.

This source is concise when talking about collaborating between the artist, their work and the audience soaking up and interpreting what is in front of them. The book Picture Perfect: fusions of illustration & design was written by Ian Noble. He was a leading design researcher, author and designer that held position of Academic Director of Communication Design with Kingston University in London. His visual research can certainly be trust. Not everything has to be spelled out in illustration; leaving a gap in the doorway to the viewer’s imagination is important. Depending on the brief, obviously if you are making informative illustrations it needs to be crystal clear, but when creating a story or conveying concepts, in my case linked to the keyword ‘multi’ its needs to be open. Allowing the element of the audience’s perceptions to collaborate with one’s own images.

T. H. (2017, March 10). Looking Back to Look Forward: Illustration Styles of the Past 30 Years. Retrieved from

I had to include this source because it was key to development in my project. It look at how illustration styles have developed over the past thirty years, looking back to look forwards. It sent me in a trajectory I could definitely not envisage, exploring multi dimensional digital art spaces. I would not have discovered the illustrator Chris Neimman without reading this source. His use of 360 degree sketchbook technology inspired me to look further at how I could expand my practice, leading me to create my own 360 sketchbook pages, giving another approach to my keyword ‘multi’. This is a direction I know I can head with into the rest of the duration of the MA illustration course. So for sheer importance I could not leave this source out. It was written by Terry Hemphill, according to the adobe website “Terry Hemphill is a Senior Product Marketing Manager for Adobe Illustrator and Creative Suite Master Collection, and directs marketing strategy for some of Adobe’s leading products. Terry was previously a production artist and graphic designer, and holds a degree in Environmental Design from NC State University.”

Meggs, P. B., & Purvis, A. W. (2006). Meggs history of graphic design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.Page 341

A reliable, strong source this edition I found on the online library with the University of Hertfordshire. The specific resource was excellent for breaking down the nature of where graphic design resided from, influences on its development. Constructivism was the reaction against perceived pitfalls in art, with its illusionistic feelings, sensitivities and concepts was stripped back in simpler geometric forms, the mechanisation of art. This was influenced by industrial society. These simple forms used by Henri Berlewi, the person Meggs refers too in the quote, reminds me off a stripped back Kandinsky, the man who painted one of the first purely abstract works.

Blog 5

Lawrence Zeegan/Crush, 2005. The Fundamentals of Illustration, AVA.Chapter – The power of the pencil, page 50.

The Fundamentals of Illustration is a book that covers the aspects of illustration, the fundamentals are important and not to be overlooked so reading this source material has been very informative. The chapter ‘The power of the pencil’ is a thorough and well balanced look at how important the use of pencil is to illustrators. It looks at how key it can be as a tool for development and as a starting point of a project. He compares “A common belief amongst graphic designers is that because the power of typography is entrusted to them alone, they hold all the cards in the game of commercial design for print. A little known, or perhaps just rarely commented upon fact that matches or even surpasses the claim to type by the designer is that the illustrator commands the power of the pencil. The pencil, and with it the activity of drawing in its broadest sense, is what defines the practice of illustration today.” It is a strong source that helped me think about why pencil will not be overlooked no matter how much new technology is made.

Blog 6

Emerie Williams & Sam Riviere, Is it essential to see a painting in the flesh? | Blog. Royal Academy of Arts. Available at: [Accessed November 10, 2018].

What made this source so useful was that it was an article written by two credible people, Emerie Williams & Sam Riviere but it has been written in the manner of a debate putting forward two sides to an argument of whether it is essential to see a painting in the flesh to get the most out of it. I looked at this source after visiting galleries in Vienna to base some research for my project upon. I use painting within my illustration practice so it is very relevant. It is relevant in a wider context, how there are multiple ways to engage with imagery, can its value be diminished or enhanced based on how you engage with it. Reproductions are endless finding art work with the click of a button on google images.

Blog 10

2. Male, A. (2017). Illustration A Theoretical & Contextual Perspective. 2nd ed. Bloomsbury, pp.Page 56 – 57.

This source material taken from the chapter ‘Externalisation of ideas and freedom of expression’ is particularly important in relation to my project.  He goes on to discuss the looseness that sketchbook drawing allows and its potential for expressing freedom in mark making and imagery whilst forming avenues of potential. Specifically “The imagery could represent the merging of reality with fantasy whereby any combination of approaches can be used: drawing from memory, from references or from pure imagination.” This merging of the senses, reality and fantasy has been really important for me, a method of production. He describes sketchbook work as a starting point however I have used it as more than that. I have used it as a method to create drawings using various times of the day, a collation of small drawings within a drawing. Then asking people to give their written feedback on their perception of what they see when looking at these drawings. Playing with the meanings of my keyword and how it can be applied, reflected and enhanced whilst exploring the essence of the multi.

Erekson, J. A. (2009). Putting Humpty Dumpty together again: When illustration shuts down interpretation. Journal of Visual Literacy,28(2), 145-162. doi:10.1080/23796529.2009.11674666

This academic journal attempts to discuss and dissect how critical visual literacy can be compromised when illustrations tell readers what to imagine. How the relationship between illustration and wording in children’s picture books should have a balanced relationship. And when illustrators over rely on conventional images it takes away the opportunity of interpretation from the reader. He uses the classic story of Humpy Dumpty and its conventional visuals in the rhyme to critically re examine historical analysis, questioning the text and visualisation with other nursery rhymes. He succeeds in challenging the way illustrations can stop the visualisation process. It is a really interesting read that has made me think about how the over use of conventional imagery can sometimes stop a wider interpretation with the readers. As I wanted to explore interpretation in image this was a strong source for my project.